The Australian Bush Fires

Nehézségi szint: KÖZÉPFOK B1/B2 (Szerző: Chris Scully)

Évtizedek óta a legsúlyosabb bozóttüzek pusztítanak Ausztráliában az extrém aszály és a hőség miatt. Olvassunk együtt a katasztrófáról és tanuljunk új kifejezéseket.

1.Kulcsszavak – Egészítsd ki a mondatokat a kifejezésekkel.

 evacuate                        extinction                         surrounding             blame            argue           industry            on a large scale             threat                  blame                      rural                strikes         embers

1)The state of animals and plants when there are no more left in the world  ___________

2)When something hits something hard it _________ it.

3) When you live in the countryside rather than the town, you live in a ______ area.

4) When you try to make other people see your point of view you ________ your point.

5) ___________means all round a particular place or thing.

6) When you tell somebody that something is their fault, then you __________ them for it (usually a bad thing).

7) when people make things in factories like cars this is known as ___________

8) When you measure the effect of something you do this on a ___________.

9) Little pieces of burning wood are called _________

10) A __________ is something that could potentially put you in danger or cause you harm in the future.

11) When people ______________ they leave their homes in order to keep safe

12)___ ___ _______ _______ is an adjective to describe a large number of people, things or a large area.

 

Bush Fires in Australia

1)Australia is a very big continent and apart from the desert land in the centre, large areas are covered in what is known as Bush which means wild forest. Many of the trees in the Bush are Eucalyptus which are very oily trees. Bush fires start naturally because of the very hot temperatures as well as these oily trees and very dry ground.

2)Lightening is often the cause of Bush fires, in such dry conditions if a tree is struck by a bolt of lightening soon the surrounding area catches on fire as well. Christmas time is mid-summer in Australia when Australians live through the hottest time of the year – above 40 degrees.

3) In recent years these fires have become wilder and larger and more and more people have been killed or homes destroyed. Some blame the Bush Fires on climate change because of higher temperatures and drier conditions. They think not enough is being done to save the environment because the car industry is so strong in Australia that they can tell the government what to do. Many argue that the fires could be better controlled if the land were more carefully managed.

4)Australians live in towns and cities like Sydney and Melbourne with the Bush nearby so that they can feel the effect of the fires through the heat and the smoke which sometimes covers the sky. Their homes are also in danger from the burning embers that fall from the sky and are blown by the wind. The worst effected are the rural communities who live in the Bush on ranches and in farmhouses because they need to evacuate themselves and their animals quickly with little warning. Often, they have no time to pack and lose their family photographs and personal belongings in the fire.

5)One fire control method used already is called ‘back burning’, this is the controlled burning of land surrounding a town that leaves a blackened strip up to the edge of the Bush. The reason for doing this is so that when the Bush fire comes closer to the town it will have no wood fuel to burn and therefore will burn itself out. This is usually done by fire fighters in the cooler months when it is safer to burn the trees and dead wood.

6)Most people agree that this method can be effective, but that it is not done on a large enough scale. Since the threat of Climate Change has not been taken seriously the government have not put enough money into making it a nation-wide programme. Many times, back burning is not done well, and people leave lots of dry wood on the ground around their homes in rural communities which gives the fires the chance to spread.

7)Worse still firefighters and volunteer fire fighters are left with little choice but to do emergency back burning at the last minute which is dangerous for themselves, and people living nearby. Not only this but when the Bush fire is burning the animals who live in the forest are trying to run away from it, and directly in their path of escape fire fighters are back burning which leaves the animals no safe place to run to and therefore more animals die needlessly.

8)After a bush fire the land and forest need a chance to regrow and while careful back burning can leave little islands of green land unburnt from which regrowth can start, emergency or last-minute back burning leaves no safe islands.

9) More and more people now argue that the government need to start using a 60,000-year-old way of managing the land from the Aborigines. Aborigines used to live hand in hand with nature and had a very close relationship to the Bush. It was where they lived and hunted, and they too lived through Bush Fires. But because they lived closer to the land, they were able to understand and manage it more. Fire was a central part of their culture and not only did they understand the need not to leave dry wood around their camps but they did control burning of this dry wood throughout the year so that they were better able to tame the Bush Fires when they happened. This also allowed the animals who lived in the forest time to escape and move to safer ground.

10) Poorly managed land has led to loss of habitat because safe areas have not been protected and loss of wildlife. The latest fires around Sydney have burnt 6million acres (an area the size of Massachusetts) and an estimated 2000 Koalas have been killed causing fears about their extinction.

11)But it may not be too late to educate people about the aboriginal method of continuous land management. Firesticks is a company that gives workshops on Aboriginal back-burning and tries to keep these old skills alive. Their hope is that with government help a continent-wide careful land management, though costly, may be able to save Australian lives, homes and nature.

2.Értést ellenőrző kérdések:

1)What is the name of the most common tree in Australia?

2)How long have the Aboriginals been managing the land in Australia?

3) How are bushfires often started in Australia?

4) What is the present method of controlling fires called?

5) Why is the Aboriginal method a better approach?

6) How many Koalas have been estimated to have been killed in NSW?

3. Találd meg a szavakat a cikkben: 

  • When you are told to take action before a bad thing happens to you, you are given a ________(para.4)
  • A verb that means to make a wild thing come under your control ________(para.9)
  • A word the generally means the area that animals choose to make their home_______(para.10)
  • When you make a guess about something, but you have some knowledge about it __________(para.10)

Válaszok:

1.extinction

2.strikes

3.rural

4.argue

5.surrounding

6.blame

7.industry

8.scale

9.ember

10.threat

11.evacuate

12.on a large scale

Comprehension Questions

  1. Eucalyptus tree
  2. 60000 years
  3. Lightening
  4. Back-burning
  5. It is safer for the animals. It gives them time to escape. It is gradual and ongoing and over a wider area so that more dead wood will be cleared.
  6. 2000

Find the word

  1. warning
  2. tame
  3. habitat
  4. estimate

 


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